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Informatique : la disparition des investissements par les entreprises !

 

OpEX CapEXNon, il ne s’agit pas d’annoncer une catastrophe économique qui ferait que les entreprises arrêteraient d’investir en Informatique.

Il s’agit au contraire d’une excellente nouvelle pour des dirigeants, les directeurs financiers et les informaticiens : la grande majorité des « investissements » que l’on retrouve dans un budget CAPEX (Capital) vont passer dans un budget de fonctionnement OPEX (Operations).

Ce Tsunami financier va toucher tous les domaines de l’informatique, infrastructures et usages.

 

Infrastructures

Réseaux, serveurs et postes de travail, les trois composants principaux d’une infrastructure informatique sont impactés par cette révolution. 

Réseaux 

Depuis longtemps, l’immense majorité des entreprises achètent leurs réseaux externes à des opérateurs et sont déjà en OPEX. Ce mouvement c’est étendu aux réseaux mobiles, qui deviennent le moyen d’accès dominant de tous les utilisateurs.

La situation est différente en ce qui concerne les réseaux internes, les LAN Local Area Networks, qui sont encore majoritairement en Ethernet filaire, mais la situation change très vite.

OneAccess RouterDe plus en plus d’entreprises basculent sur des réseaux LAN Wi-Fi quand le nombre d’utilisateurs ne dépasse pas une centaine dans un même lieu. Ces réseaux peuvent maintenant être déployés avec des performances professionnelles et se substituer totalement aux réseaux filaires, éliminant tous les investissements en câblage et commutateurs Ethernet.

C’est ce que permettent maintenant des solutions multiaccès comme celles proposées par OneAccess

OpenFlow routerPour les grands sites qui auront encore besoin, pendant de nombreuses années, de réseaux filaires très rapides, les investissements seront encore nécessaires, mais fortement réduits par le déploiement des SDN, Software Defined Networks et en particulier des solutions Open Source autour d’Open Flow.

Serveurs

AWS vs GCEPour les entreprises petites ou moyennes, la question ne se pose plus ; leurs coûts de gestion en interne d’un parc de quelques dizaines ou centaines de serveurs deviennent prohibitifs face aux prix que peuvent leur proposer les grands industriels tels que AWS d’Amazon, Azure de Microsoft ou GCE (Google Compute Engine). 

Les deux autres avantages évidents d’un passage en OPEX :

  • Flexibilité ; on ne paye que les heures utilisées.
  • Puissance variable : j’ai toujours accès à la puissance dont j’ai besoin, même si j’ai de fortes variations d’activité.

Pour les très grandes entreprises, ce basculement vers des solutions IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) prendra plus de temps. 

Netflix on AWS - Things we don't doL’un des exemples les plus significatifs est celui de Netflix, le leader américain de la VOD (Vidéo à la Demande). Netflix consomme 1 milliard d’heures de calcul par mois sur AWS, correspondant à 95% de sa consommation informatique. Cette slide est extraite d’une présentation faite par le CEO de Netflix et présente les principales raisons de ce choix. Le mot « wait » (attendre) y est présent plusieurs fois !

Postes de travail

C’est, aujourd’hui, le poste de dépenses le plus élevé du budget informatique des grandes entreprises. Le TCO, Total Cost of Ownership, des PC Windows, de loin les postes de travail les plus répandus dans les entreprises, est évalué par le Gartner Group à 3500 $ par an, comme je le rappelais récemment.

Trois évolutions majeures vont changer la donne et réduire, fortement, les investissements des entreprises pour leurs postes de travail :

IDC market share mobile device

  • La domination des objets mobiles : tablettes, smartphones, PC mobiles représentent plus de 80 % des objets d’accès vendus en 2012. La majorité des smartphones sont déjà commercialisés avec un contrat mensuel couvrant l’objet d’accès et le coût du réseau.
  • De plus en plus d’entreprises lancent des programmes BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) et BYON (Bring Your Own Network). lL’investissement est pris en charge par le collaborateur et l’entreprise lui verse une somme mensuelle : on passe d’un budget CAPEX à OPEX.
  • Chromebook Leasing $28Autre exemple : Google a lancé un programme de « location » des Chromebooks, couvrant, pour une somme variant de 20 $ à 30 $, tous les coûts sur une période de 3 ans, avec renouvellement du matériel à la fin de la période. Cette démarche sera rapidement imitée par un grand nombre de fournisseurs. 

 

Usages

Dans le domaine des usages, les choses sont beaucoup plus simples : les solutions SaaS, Software as a Service, s’imposent pour toutes les processus transverses et les applications de communication et de collaboration, de « participatique ».

Une étude récente, réalisée par le cabinet américain Saugatuck, montre que, en 2016, moins de 15 % des applications déployées le seront en mode traditionnel « on premise ».

Saugatuck growth public cloud vs private

Et... 100 % des applications SaaS sont facturées en fonction du temps, du nombre d’utilisateurs ou du niveau de ressources consommées ; ce sont donc, dans 100 % des cas, des dépenses OPEX !

Il faudra encore de nombreuses, trop nombreuses années, aux grandes organisations pour se libérer de leurs logiciels intégrés et autres ERP, mais le budget CAPEX qui leur est consacré va progressivement se réduire.

 

Les fournisseurs investissent ... les clients utilisent

Ce n’est pas parce que les entreprises utilisatrices vont arrêter leurs investissements en infrastructures et usages que ces investissements vont disparaître ! Ils seront pris en charge par les ... fournisseurs de solutions Cloud d’infrastructures IaaS ou d’applications SaaS.

Accenture - CLoud InvestmentsAccenture a calculé le montant des investissements réalisés entre 2009 et 2012 par des « petits » acteurs industriels ayant pour noms Amazon, Apple, Google ou Microsoft ; ces chiffres se passent de commentaires...

Google Infrastructures spending 2012Cet autre graphique montre que le montant des investissements trimestriels réalisés par Google a doublé en un an, en passant de 600 M à 1 200 M de dollars.

Il ne s’agit pas de solutions « low cost », avec le sens péjoratif que l’on donne souvent à cette expression. Il s’agit au contraire de solutions « haut de gamme » dont les prix de vente vont baisser régulièrement avec l’aide des fournisseurs industriels qui sont capables d’en réduire fortement le prix de revient et font profiter leurs clients de leurs économies d’échelle.

 

Le challenge spécifique des organismes publics

Ce basculement de CAPEX vers OPEX est très bien accepté par les entreprises privées ; il est plus difficile à gérer dans les entreprises publiques.

Pourquoi ? Les budgets d’investissements et de fonctionnement sont très séparés, étanches et avec souvent des sources de revenus très différentes.

G-Cloud UK government marketplaceJ’ai souvent eu à affronter ce problème dans des projets Cloud Computing pour les organismes publics qui sont souvent obligés de trouver des « astuces » financières permettant de « capitaliser » des dépenses de fonctionnement de type SaaS !

Pour répondre à ce problème, la démarche suivie par le gouvernement britannique est très intelligente ; il a créé G-Cloud, une place de marché SaaS où toutes les solutions, préapprouvées, peuvent être mises en œuvre immédiatement sans avoir besoin de passer par des procédures classiques d’appel d’offres.

  

Tendances

Ce mouvement de fond, d’une informatique CAPEX vers une informatique OPEX, ne se fera pas en quelques mois !

Comme c’est la règle depuis une dizaine d’années :

Consumerization of ITLe grand public montre la voie ; cela fait bien longtemps que plus personne ne gère ses serveurs en local et on constate un mouvement très rapide vers l’archivage « Cloud » avec Box, Dropbox, iCloud ou Gdrive.

  • Les entreprises petites et moyennes prennent rapidement le relais. Elles ont plus de flexibilité pour changer leurs solutions informatiques existantes.
  • Les grandes organisations mettent plus de temps à migrer vers des solutions OPEX ; il leur est plus difficile et long de sortir de leurs investissements « legacy » dans les infrastructures et les applications.

NirvanaConfier à de grands fournisseurs industriels la responsabilité des investissements en infrastructures et usages informatiques ; leur acheter les seules ressources dont on a besoin, quand on en a besoin, avec la certitude de ne jamais avoir à investir sur des ressources que l’on est certain de ne jamais pouvoir optimiser...

Ce « nirvana » informatique est à votre portée ; il serait vraiment dommage de ne pas en profiter !

 

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Louis Nauges

Louis Naugès is Founder & President of Revevol, the first European Consulting organization 100% dedicated to SaaS and Cloud Computing. He has 30 years of IT experience. Very few people in Europe have his knowledge and expertise in Cloud & SaaS technologies and applications. He works directly with CIOs of very large organizations. Revevol is the first EMEA distributor of Google Apps and the largest worldwide organization deploying Google Apps is one of Revevol's clients.

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